Bring Internet Scale to Every Blockchain.

Project stage

Only a whitepaper

Detailed description

Celer Network is an Internet-scale, trust-free, and privacy-preserving platform where everyone can quickly build, operate, and use highly scalable decentralized applications. It is not a standalone blockchain but a generic networked system running on top of existing and future blockchains. It provides unprecedented performance and flexibility through innovations in off-chain scaling techniques and incentive-aligned cryptoeconomics.

Layered architecture with clear abstractions and interfaces. Reduces complexities in the system design, development and maintenance. Enables rapid evolution of each individual component.

Generalized state channel and sidechain suite. Supports fast state transitions with generic dependency DAG on networked channels. Flexible constructs to maximize liquidity utilization.

Provably optimal value transfer routing with transparent channel balancing. 15X higher throughput compared to state-of-art solutions. Fully decentralized with high failure resilience.

Development framework and runtime for off-chain enabled applications. Provides common design patterns, and handles the operation, storage, tracking, and dispute of off-chain states.

Application ecosystem running on Celer Network. Scale out to billions of private off-chain transactions per second with no compromise on trust or decentralization guaranteed by the blockchains.

Cryptoeconomic model that provides network effect, stable liquidity, and high availability for the ecosystem. Includes proof of liquidity commitment, liquidity backing auction, and state guardian network.


The need for state routing (or “payment routing” in the case of payment channel networks) is apparent: it is impractical to establish direct state channels between every pair of nodes due to channel opening costs and deposit liquidity lockup. Therefore, it is necessary to build a network consisting of state channels, where state transitions should be relayed in a trust-free manner. The design of state routing is crucial for the level of scalability that a state channel network can provide, i.e., how fast and how many transactions can flow on a given network. However, existing proposals all fall short to meet the fundamental challenges imposed by the unique properties of state channel networks.


Celer Network project proposes Distributed Balanced Routing (DBR) as an efficient routing protocol for value transfers in an off-chain state channel network. . Compared with existing routing algorithms, the proposed DBR algorithm has the following advantages:

  • Provably optimal throughput (for a given arrival rate of value transfer requests, if there exists any routing algorithm that “supports” the rate, DBR is also able to do that)
  • Transparent channel balancing (the channel rebalancing process is naturally embedded in the routing process without any additional coordination)
  • Fully decentralized (the DBR algorithm is a fully decentralized algorithm where each node only needs to talk to its neighbors in the state channel network topology)
  • Failure resilience (the DBR algorithm can quickly detect and adapt to unresponsive nodes, supporting the maximum possible throughput over the remaining available nodes)
  • Privacy preserving (the DBR algorithm naturally preserves the privacy regarding the amount of transferred values, without using any additional privacy-preserving techniques)


Fully generalized state channel dApp logic
cOS not only supports simple off-chain payments like existing solutions but also provides API and design framework to support generalized off-chain application state transitions. When someone places stones on the game board of cGomoku, each move is happening through off-chain logic execution. Don’t worry about the security and finality, because each step is secured by on-chain verifiable generalized state proof.

Out-of-box conditional payment
Blockchain applications are often associated with value transfer, which is the case in Gomoku duel because the winner gets the loser’s stake. The interesting thing here is to ensure that no one can cheat: the loser has to pay. cChannel enables this semantic by supporting conditional payment. Before the game starts, each player can send conditional payments to its counterparty saying “I will pay you $5 if you win”, which can be enforced to malicious counterparties. Note that the payment logic and Gomoku logic are separate act objects with state dependency, so that cGomoku can share the same payment channels with all other cApps. More broadly, cOS and cChannel support generalized conditional dependency DAG with arbitrary resolution logic beyond this kind of simple logic.

One-time-setup, long-term-use channel
Connecting to the Celer Network is similar to connecting to the Internet. You can choose one or a few access points to open cChannels and these are the only on-chain operations you ever need to do until you run out of money or encounter special events such as malicious counterparty. Just like you can use the same Internet service providers to access all sorts of Internet applications, you can use the same cChannels to access all sorts of cApps concurrently. The following three features are essential to support this ease of use.

Multi-hop trust-free state relay via Celer Nodes
In the Celer Network, each end user only needs to connect with one or a few access points. Not only simple payments but also more complex conditional state transitions need to be relayed in a multi-hop fashion cOS provides a simple API called for the application to conduct this kind of complex multi-hop conditional state relay without worrying about the interaction with the cChannel network.

Modular state dispute resolution
Sometimes on-chain state settle cannot be avoided. For example, one of the cGomoku players may drop off-line. In that case, we want to minimize the “blast radius” of such on-chain settlement. You wouldn’t want to close all your channels just because of an offline Gomoku opponent. cChannel’s interface is designed so that each off-chain object is compartmentalized to do just that.

Pure Off-chain Object
Many people may believe that every off-chain application has to go through an on-chain initialization phase to set up an on-chain bond. The on-chain bond contract is only necessary for payment channel logic because the states of each payment channel (e.g., Alice deposits $X into the channel) should be verifiable by all nodes to prevent double spending, which is essentially preventing “state race conditions”. However, if we look at cGomoku, the game state is valid as long as all involving parties have signed the state, and no state race conditions can ever happen in this context.

Therefore, no on-chain state or operation is ever neededfor cGomoku until someone wants to dispute. We call this kind of objects Pure Off-chain Objects. But how can we properly reference a pure off-chain object if we want to dispute over this object later on the blockchain? Celer Network provides a way to construct a uniquely identifiable reference (Off-chain Address) for off-chain objects, only deploy objects on chain when necessary, and provides an Off-chain Address Translator (OAT) to establish the mapping from off-chain address to on-chain address.

Mobile cOS native dev framework and run time
Celer Network provides the first-ever mobile based off-chain application development framework under cOS specification. cOS lets developers concentrate on the application logic and create the best user experience, without hassling with complicated off-chain states exchange, tracking, or dispute. Whether you want to enable fast and secure transaction in an e-commerce app or add rich gamification features in a viral mobile game app, the user experience will be silky smooth, say goodbye to slow transactions and expensive transaction fees.

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  • Token details

    • Token symbol ? Token symbol — a shorten token name. It is used during an ICO and after the coin listing at the cryptocurrency exchanges. : CELR
    • Fundrasing target ? Fundraising target — the maximum amount of funds to be raised during an ICO. When it is reached, the developers stop selling the tokens because they do not need to raise more money for the project development. : 23,000,000 USD
    • Token type ? Token type — a platform for a startup launch that influences the stability of blockchain operation, the speed of transactions and the fees. :Own blockchain ()
    • Soft cap ? Soft cap — the minimum amount of funds to be raised for the project development. Sometimes when the soft cap has not been reached, the money is returned to the participants. : NA
    • Role of token ? Role of Token — type of token depending on the opportunities it offers to its owner. Utility tokens give their owners a right to use the project services, security tokens are aimed at bringing profit, and currency tokens are a money substitute. :Utility token
    • Total supply ? Total supply — a total amount of tokens that will be released by the developers. :1,000,000,000 CELR
    • Escrow agent ? Escrow agent — a qualified agent who has the right of signature in a multisig wallet. An escrow agent participates in an ICO, monitors the financial operations of the developers and confirms their fairness. :No
    • Tokens for sale ? Tokens for sale — the number of tokens offered to the participants of an ICO. :3,000,000,000 CELR
    • Whitelist ? Whitelist — a list of participants, who get an opportunity to buy tokens. To be whitelisted, you need to register on time because the number of participants and the registration period are usually limited. :Whitelist N/A
    • Additional emission ? Additional emission — an additional release of tokens. It can be done once after the crowd sale or on an ongoing basis. In the projects with a limited emission there is no additional emission. :No
    • Exchange listing ? Exchange listing — an assumed date when the token will be listed at a cryptocurrency exchange. The developers usually indicate it in a roadmap and a white paper. :NA
    • Accepting currencies ? Accepting currencies — cryptocurrencies and fiat currencies that can be used for buying the project tokens. :NA
    • Can't participate ? Can't participate — the countries where it is prohibited to buy tokens. These can be countries where ICOs are prohibited altogether, or countries that have the requirements that a particular project does not meet. :Canada, China, New Zealand, South Korea, USA,
    • Know Your Customer (KYC) ? Know Your Customer — a verification procedure for ICO participants, during which the developers can ask for personal data, a photo and a scanned copy of a passport of a potential investor. :No
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  • Token and Funds Distribution

    Token distribution date


    Unsold tokens

      • Token Distribution

          Vesting notes

          • Team & Advisors: Lock up 2 years
          • Foundation Reserve: Lock up 2 years

    Sale schedule

    Round Token Price Bonus Min / Max Purchase Soft Cap Hard Cap
    Private sale — Ended
    11 Jul 00:00 UTC
    0.015 USD No - Uncapped 23,000,000 USD
    • Team

      • Mo Dong photo
        Mo Dong
      • Junda Liu photo
        Junda Liu
      • Xiaozhou Li photo
        Xiaozhou Li
      • Qingkai Liang photo
        Qingkai Liang
    • Advisors

      • Christos Kozyrakis
        Technical Advisor
      • Alan Mishchenko
        Technical Advisor
      • Shoucheng Zhang


    • Q3 2018
      • cChannel: generalized state channel contract release
      • cRoute: continued research and evaluation
      • cOS: SDK private beta release
      • cEconomy: PoLC testnet launch
      • Community: 400 cApp developers onboard
    • Q4 2018
      • cChannel: multi-blockchain support
      • cRoute: large-scale emulation and algorithm tuning
      • cOS: SDK public v1.0 release
      • cEconomy: PoLC mainnet launch
      • Community: first off-chain service provider launch
    • Q1 2019
      • cChannel: unified interface for state channel and sidechain
      • cRoute: implementation and test
      • cOS: SDK public v2.0 (with VM-native bridge beta) release
      • cEconomy: LiBA and SGN testnet launch
      • Community: more third-party cApps
    • Q2 2019
      • cChannel: continued blockchain expansion and integration
      • cRoute: test and deploy
      • cOS: SDK public v3.0 (with sidechain support) release
      • cEconomy: LiBA and SGN mainnet launch
      • Community: more off-chain service providers
    • H2 2019
      • cChannel: cross-chain interoperability
      • cRoute: production measurement and optimization
      • cOS: SDK public v4.0 (with VM-native bridge) release
      • Community: large-scale cApps ecosystem